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形合句与意合句

 2020-07-22 10:20:02
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在所有的语言中,句子的内部连接或外部连接几乎都不外乎使用三种手段:句法手段、词汇手段和语义手段。使用前两种手段进行句子连接的语言被称为以形合 (hypotaxis)为特点的语言,使用后一种手段进行句子连接的语言被称为以意合 (parataxis)为特点的语言。




例如:It was a keen disappointment that I had to postpone the visit which I had intended to pay to China in January.


原文充分展示了英语综合性语言的特征,即句法、词汇和语义手段开门见山(It was a keen disappointment);借助从句(that和which从句)进行解释说明;利用词的曲折变化实现语法关系(had to postpone, had intended)。译文按时间顺序展开,借助副词“原,后来” 表示语法关系,发挥动词优势,将整件事情交待得清清楚楚。


译文:我原打算一月份访问中国,后来不得不推迟,这使我非常失望。


又如:The isolation of the rural area because of the distance and paucity of transport facilities was compounded by the lack of information media.


原文是一个典型的英语句子。它的特点是:主干突出——The isolation was compounded;借助介词和连词层层搭架——句中共用了四个of,一个and,一个by;名词见长一句中共用了九个名词。




译文由两个典型的汉语句子组成,层次分明、严密、紧凑。整个句子按照逻辑顺序展开,先因后果,借助动词(全句共用六个动词),一项一项地交待(由于……使得……隔绝。又由于……而……更加糟糕)。




译文:由于距离(城镇)远,缺乏交通工具,使得广大农村地区与外界隔绝。这种状况又由于缺乏信息媒介,而变得更加糟糕。




♦以下将英译汉过程中有关形合与意合的问题归纳如下:


1. 结构不合理,句子不自然


There will come a day when people the world over will live a happy life under the sun of socialism.


全世界人民在社会主义阳光下过幸福生活的一天是会到来的。


译文主语的定语长,使得整个句子头重脚轻。试译为:全世界人将在社会主义的阳光下过幸福的生活,这一天是一定会来到的。


The sun,which had hidden all day, now came out in all its splendor.


那个整天躲在云层里的太阳,现在又光芒四射地露面了。




原文里的定语从句,是补叙性的,译成汉语,不一定放在被修饰名词之前。原文没有“又”这个意思,应去掉。试译为:太阳一整天都躲在云里,现在出来了,光芒四射。


I had experienced oxygen and/or engine trouble.


我曾碰到过,不是氧气设备出故障,就是引擎出故障,或二者都出故障。


“我曾碰到过”,句子突然中止,好象无宾语,但实际上宾语却是很长的三个分句,这不合乎汉语表达习惯。可在“碰到过”后加上“这种现象”或将宾语提前。试译为:不是氧气设备出故障,就是引擎出故障,或者它们都出故障,这些我都碰到过。


2. 选词不准确,表达不地道


The teenagers don't invite Bob to their parties because he is a wet blanket.


青少年们不邀请鲍伯参加他们的聚会因为他是一个令人扫兴的人。


“青少年”属集合的概念,反映青少年的集合体,而不反映个体,所以,不可在它的前边加上数量词或在后边加上“们”。teenagers在汉语里没有相对应的词,可译为“年轻人”。试译为:那些年轻人不让鲍伯参加他们的聚会,因为他是一个令人扫兴的家伙。




These planes were held back to protect the enemy's home islands instead of being used where they were badly needed.


这些飞机被留在后方保卫敌人本岛,未用于其他急需的地方。


“保卫”是一个褒义词,不应用在此句。“敌人本岛”不合乎汉语习惯表达。试译为:敌人没有把这些飞机用到最需要的地方去,而是把它们留下来,在岛上守卫他们的老巢。




3. 音节不匀称,句子较生硬


This failure was the making of him.


这次不成功是他成功的基础。


把failure译为“不成功”,是画蛇添足,这不但使句子的音节不够整齐,而且在这短短的句子里,有两个“成功”相连,读起来不顺,听起来也不悦耳。试译为:这次失败促使了他的成功。


They drove in a black limousine, passed groves of birch trees and endless rows of identical new buildings。


他们乘坐一辆黑色轿车,经过一丛丛的白桦树和看不到尽头的一排排千篇一律的新住宅。




“新住宅”前的定语过长,句子的音节也不匀称,节奏感不强,因而,句子无气势。试译为:他们乘坐一辆黑色轿车,经过一丛丛的白烨树和一排排的新楼房。这些楼房,千篇一律,望不到头。常用的几种译法




a. 拆句


Incidentally, I suggest that you have the telephone moved to the sitting-room.


顺便说一句,我建议你把电话移到起居室。


He had a disconcerting habit of expressing contradictory ideas in rapid succession.


他有个习惯叫人受不了,意思反复不定,一会一个主张。


Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, a universally accepted law.


能量即不能创造也不能消灭,这是一条公认的规律。


The meeting ended with protestations of friendship from everyone.


会议结束,人人表示彼此将友好相处。


His failure to observe the safety regulations resulted in an accident to the machinery.


因为他没能遵守安全规则,机器出了故障。


He had left a note of welcome for me, as sunny as his face.


他留下一封段信,对我表示欢迎,那信写的热情洋溢,一如其人。


b. 顺序法


Your presumption that I would want to share a flat with you is false.


你认为我会和你同住一套公寓,那就错了。


Researchers have established that when people are mentally engaged, biochemical changes occur in the brain that allow it to act more effectively in cognitive (认知的)areas such as attention and memory.


研究人员证实:人们在动脑筋时,头脑会产生很多的变化,使头脑在注意力和记忆力 这类认知领域中更有效地活动


During the ice ages, human beings exposed to the colder temperatures of the time would 


often make their homes in caves.


在冰河时代,人们面临当时较为寒冷的气温,常常在洞穴里安家。




c. 逆序法


It was extended and preserved in the 19th century, when our nation spread across the continent, saved the union, and abolished the awful scourge of slavery,


在19世纪,我们的国家横跨大陆,拯救了联邦,废除了恐怖的奴隶制的蹂躏,这一信 念才得以流传可扩展。


By January 16,just a month after the beginning of the offensive on which Hitler had staked his last reserves in men and guns and ammunition,the German forces were back to line from which they had set out.


到1月16日,德军又回到了他们当初出击的战线,这恰好是希特勒把他最后的兵力、 大炮、弹药储备孤注一掷、发动进攻的一个月之后。


Five score years ago,a great American,in whose symbolic shadow we stand by,signed the Emancipation Proclamation.


100年前,一位伟人签署了《奴隶解放宣言》,今天,我们正是站在这位伟人富有象征意义的雕像下集会。




d. 变序法(综合法)


Can you answer a question which I want to ask and which is puzzling me?


我有个问题弄不懂,想请教你,你能回答吗?


He had cleared up those confusions which arose from different medicines that had the same name and from various names that had been given to the same substance.


药名混乱,有的由于不同药物同一名称所引起,而有的则由于同一药物不同名称所造 成,他对此一一作了澄清。


Ours is a profession which traditionally has been guided by a precept that transcends the virtue of uttering the truth for truth's sake and that is as far as possible do no harm.


我们的职业传统上格守一个信条,那就是尽可能的不造成伤害,这一信条胜过为讲真话而讲真话的美德。


The president said at a press conference dominated by questions on yesterday election results that he could not explain why the Republicans had suffered such a widespread defeat, which in the end would deprive the Republican Patty of Tong-held superiority in the House.


在一次记者招待会上,问题集中于昨天的选举结果,总统就此发了言。他说他无法解释为何共和党遭到如此大的失败。这种情况最终使共和党在众议院中失去了长期享有的优势。

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